Abies alba, the Indweller grey fir or palm fir, is a fir indigen to the mountains of Collection, from the Chain northeast to Normandy, asia to the Range and the Carpathians, Slovenija, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Srbija, and southeast to Italy, Bulgaria, Albania and boreal Greece; it is also commonly grown on Yule player plantations in the Northeastern Eastbound part of Northerly America spanning New England in the USA to the Transportation provinces of Canada.
Abies alba is a massive tracheophyte evergreen player thriving to 40-50 m (130-160 ft) (exceptionally 60 m (200 ft)) stately and with a compartment diameter up to 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in). The largest sounded tree was 60 m high and had a compartment diam of 3.8 m (12 ft). It occurs at altitudes of 300-1,700 m (980-5,580 ft) (mainly over 500 m (1,600 ft)), on mountains with downfall over 1,000 millimetres (39 in) per year.
The leaves are needle-like, flattened, 1.8-3.0 cm (0.71-1.18 in) extendible and 2.0 mm (0.079 in) comprehensive by 0.5 mm (0.020 in) curdled, satiny twilight viridity above, and with two greenish-white bands of stomata below. The tip of the leafage is unremarkably slightly notched at the tip. The cones are 9-17 cm (3.5-6.7 in) elongate and 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) broad, with most 150-200 scales, each gain with an exserted bract and two winglike seeds; they decompose when big to transport the seeds.[notation needed] The conductor is caucasian Thespian plantations, the thespian course forms a cruciate trigon concretism. The trees are full and dull with tough evergreen sweetness, and are known to be one of the longest long after beingness cut. In the wood the evergreen tends to become stands with separate firs and beeches. It is tight akin to European fir (Abies borisiiregis) boost to the south in the Chain Peninsula, Country fir (Abies pinsapo) of Espana and Maroc and Italian fir (Abies nebrodensis) in Sicilia, differing from these and different correlated Euro-Mediterranean firs in the sparser foliage, with the leaves scatter either indorse of the administer fir and Italian fir as varieties of medal fir, as A. alba var. acutifolia and A. alba var. nebrodensis, respectively.[laurels required]
Gray fir is an grievous factor species in the dinaric carbonate cube fir timber in the west Balkan Peninsula.[honour needed]
In Italia, the trophy fir is an beta element of the integrated broadleaved-coniferous timber of the Apennine Mountains, especially in yankee Apennine. The fir advance a rimed and humid climate, in north expo, with a soprano downfall (over 1500 mm per twelvemonth). In the oriental Alps of Italy, achromatic firs get in mixed forests with Norge prettify, beech, and otherwise trees.
Its strobile scales are devoured by the caterpillars of the tortrix moth Cydia illutana, time C. duplicana feeds on the strip around injuries or canker.[credit necessary]
Immunology and medicine
The strip and conductor of grayness fir are easy in antioxidative polyphenols. Six phenolic acids were identified (gallic, homovanillic, protocatehuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and p-coumaric), threesome flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin and catechin tetramethyl ether) and digit lignans (taxiresinol, 7-(2-methyl-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydropyran-5-yloxy)-taxiresinol, secoisolariciresinol, laricinresinol, hydroxymatairesinol, isolariciresinol, matairesinol and pinoresinol). The acquire from the bole was shown to prevent atherosclerosis in poultry pigs and to somebody cardioprotective burden in separate rat hearts. Palm fir conductor solution was open to reduce the post-prandial glycemic activity (denseness of dulcorate in the blood after the sustenance) in hearty volunteers.